The word Fraktur derives from the past participle fractus ("broken") of the Latin frangere ("to break"), the same root as the English word 'fracture'. Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, Fraktur includes the ß, vowels with umlauts, and the ſ (long s). The first Fraktur typeface was designed when Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1493–1519) established a series of books and had a new typeface created, designed by Hieronymus Andreae. Fraktur quickly overtook the earlier Schwabacher and Textualis typefaces in popularity, and a wide variety of Fraktur fonts were carved. It became common in the German-speaking world and areas under German influence (Scandinavia, the Baltic states, Central Europe). Typesetting in Fraktur was still very common in the early 20th century in all German-speaking countries and areas, as well as in Norway, Estonia, and Latvia, and was still used to a very small extent in Sweden, Finland and Denmark, while other countries typeset in Antiqua. On January 3, 1941, Martin Bormann issued a circular to all public offices which declared Fraktur (and its corollary, the Sütterlin-based handwriting) to be Judenlettern (Jewish letters) and prohibited their further use. It has been speculated by German historian Albert Kapr that the régime had realised that Fraktur would inhibit communication in the territories occupied during World War II.