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Thursday, 22 July 2021

The Tokyo Olympics and Typewriters Galore: Things That Won’t Be Seen at the 2021 Games

A scene from Kon Ichikawa’s movie Tokyo Olympiad.
On the eve of the Tokyo Olympic Games opening, I'm feeling nostalgic for a time when the Olympics were true sporting events, and not just cash cows for TV networks. I doubt these particular Games would be going ahead if a majority of Japanese people had any say in the matter, but they don't. TV makes the call, through its International Olympic Committee puppets. The IOC has Japan over a barrel, and money, unknown at Olympia, is its god.

Kon Ichikawa’s brilliant film of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics begins with the line, “The Olympics are a symbol of human aspiration”, and for me one early scene from the movie sums up the situation. A dreamy-eyed young Japanese girl is engrossed watching the Opening Ceremony, her eyes full of wonderment and fascination. That's how the Olympics were for me 57 years ago. To be inspired by the Olympics back then was not to be motivated to win bucket loads of money, but to aspire to be involved in the very highest and purest pursuit of sporting achievement. All long gone, I'm afraid.

Also long gone are many of things that were a common sight at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, including typewriters. Ichikawa’s movie includes delightful scenes from the Olivetti Press Centre (note, Press, not media). Delightful for me at least, as the footage is not just a reminder of my past life covering such international sporting events as the Olympics, but of seeing so many typewriters being put to good use by journalists. It’s the way it used to be done, and done so much more efficiently and effectively than today. It’s worth watching Ichikawa’s Tokyo Olympiad just for the typewriters alone. Quite apart from that, the film is considered a cinematographic milestone in documentary filmmaking and is one of the few sports documentaries included in the book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die.

As the journalists pound away at their typewriters in Tokyo Olympiad, I noticed that one man had a cigar clamped in his mouth and seemed to be typing one-handed. I immediately wondered whether it was the late Jack Knarr, a friend of Mike Brown of Typex fame and a man who once went up against Richard Polt in a speed typing contest (it was a close call, I believe). Jack, as I recall, typed one-handed, and also. I think, covered sports. Whether he chomped on cigars I do not know, as sadly I never got to meet him.

From the official Games report.
Press boxes of the Komazawa Stadium.
IBM also had a major input to Press facilities in 1964, providing an elaborate integrated system that sent results and other information to various venue press centres.
Olivetti got the naming rights to the Press Centre in Tokyo in 1964 because the Japanese typewriter industry was still in its infancy back then, and also because Olivetti had been associated with the Olympic movement since the Games in Melbourne in 1956, and had supplied typewriters at its home country Olympics in Rome in 1960. By 1964 Olivetti had established its own Japanese offshoot. The Tokyo Organising Committee’s official report notes that Olivetti Japan Ltd supplied more than 800 typewriters to various Games venues and facilities, with 24 different language keyboards. The Games were covered by 1153 accredited journalists, including 79 from the United States alone. Agence France-Presse, whose office can be seen below here, had 20 journalists, the same as UPI and Reuters; AP had 25.


Packed stadiums

Athletes posting real mail in real postboxes.

With stamps.

Athletes taking street scene photos with real cameras.

A real newsagency in the Olympic Village, with real newspapers and magazines. The Kinokuniya Bookstore.

Athletes, like Mamo Sebsibe of Ethiopia, voluntarily offering blood samples. 

Athletes, like American high jumper Eleanor Montgomery, wearing hair rollers in the high jump pit (or a high jump pit like this one!).

Athletes wearing bathrobes outside in the rain (or using lovely umbrellas like these).

Bobby Hayes, about to win the Blue Riband 100 metres and to make millions playing football, riding an ordinary pushbike around the village and stopping to chat to locals.

Wives, like Sheila Matthews, being able to get on to the Main Stadium track to hug their gold medal-winning husbands, such as British 20km walker Ken.

A bunch of Kiwis being able to get trackside to perform a celebratory haka after countrymen Peter Snell and John Davies (below) finished first and third respectively in the 1500m.

Two New Zealanders winning medals in the one race, and stopping to smile and shake hands with the silver medallist.

A Native American (Billy Mills, or Tamakoce Te'Hila) winning a track gold medal. 

A gymnast from Mongolia, like Yadamsurengiin Tuyaa, being able to represent her own country.

The winner of the marathon, having run 26 miles and 385 yards in a tad over 2 hours 12 minutes, doing calisthenics after crossing the finish line, as Ethiopia's Abebe Bilika did.

Face masks yes, but nose clamps? Unlikely. US breaststroker 
Chet Jastremski.

A crowded yacht tender after New Zealanders Helmer Pedersen and Earle Wells won gold.

An Olympic Village wedding: Bulgarian athletes Nikolai Prodanov and Diana Yorgova tie the knot in the first wedding inside an Athletes' Village, conducted in front of the Olympic flag in the traditional Japanese style by a Shinto priest.

Kissing teammates: Above 
Soviet kayakers Andriy Khimich and Stepan Oshchepov get into a passionate hug and kiss, and below Italian cyclists celebrate.

And, afterwards, you definitely won't see an Olympic movie poster which makes this sexist claim!:

Monday, 19 July 2021

Typewriter Champion, Keen Cameraman, Ace Radio Operator: The Bill MacLane of an Earlier Era?

A comment on this blog today came from a reader in Nashville, Tennessee, and alerted me to a member of the 1920s Underwood speed typewriting team who I had previously neglected. I was doubly delighted to look into this typist’s life story, because it ticks many of the boxes of interest for my friend Bill MacLane in Michigan, whose pursuits include not just typewriters but cameras and radios. Arthur Francis Neuenhaus (1906-1987) was  a world champion speed typist and a keen photographer (using this hobby to promote typewriter sales) and a civil defence radio director from 1953-60, at the height of the Cold War.

The Nashville reader said that “while going through a box of old family photos and such, I ran across a card identical to Barney Stapert's card [right]*, only this one is Arthur F. Neuenhaus and his record was 131 net words per minute for one-half hour. I have no idea what year this is from; however, I would be happy to donate it to you to add to your very interesting hobby!” (*The comment was directed at my November 2014 post “Last Days of Speed Typing Glory”, which included an Underwood promotional card featuring Stapert, the 1924 world amateur champion who became the “third musketeer” behind George Hossfeld and Albert Tangora in the Underwood speed team.) 

Anyway, YES, PLEASE to the Nashville reader who offered the card. And thanks for putting me on to Arthur Neuenhaus, the 1920 world novice typing champion (at age 14).

Neuenhaus was born in Paterson, New Jersey, on February 24, 1906, and died at North Palm Beach, Florida, on April 8, 1987, aged 81. After joining the Underwood team, he was second in the world amateur championship in 1921, fifth in 1922 and fourth in 1923, when he achieved his high mark of 131 words per minute. By 1933 he had followed Tangora to Royal and remained with that company for the rest of his working life. By 1950 he was selling and demonstrating Royal typewriters to high schools in New York City. He used his interest in colour photography to put together presentations.

Neuenhaus had settled in Glen Rock, New Jersey, and from 1953 became very active in the local civil defence council, established as part of the “Alert America” program for fear of a Soviet pre-emptive nuclear strike. With civil defence, his area of expertise (beyond typewriters) was radio, and from 1930, when he lived in Clifton, New Jersey, he had had the call signal W2CXJ. In Glen Rock he was chairman of the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service. He moved to North Palm Beach in 1960 and became involved with the American Association of Retired Persons.

Sunday, 18 July 2021

Paul Gallico Dubbed Him 'Herr Doktor': The Man Who Dumped Eleanor Holm from the 1936 Olympic Games

Olympic Games champion swimmer Eleanor Holm with her portable typewriter and surrounded by swimming medals in her penthouse apartment in Biscayne Bay, South Florida, in November 1976. She was axed from the US team for the 1936 Berlin Olympics by Avery Brundage.

Four days before the opening of the 1972 Munich Olympic Games - at which, under Avery Brundage’s watch, 11 Israeli athletes and coaches were murdered by Palestinians - Associated Press filed a farsighted column from veteran foreign correspondent Jim Becker (left), which appeared in US newspapers under the headline, “Someday, Maybe Nobody Will Come to Olympics!” Forty-nine years later those Olympics have arrived, and are about to open to a small group of VIPs in a stadium in a Covid-19 ravaged Tokyo. The ghost of Brundage – crying “The Games must go on” – will be hovering over them. The 1972 AP article, in which Becker unmercifully lampooned the then International Olympic Committee president Brundage, forecast a disastrous 1984 Olympics in Houston, Texas, opened in an empty stadium by a wild trumpet blast from Al Hirt and hosted by a 97-year-old Brundage (to the eternal relief of world sport, Brundage died in May 1975, aged 87). But Becker wasn’t all that far off the mark: the 1984 Games were held in Los Angeles and 14 Eastern Bloc nations boycotted them. Al Hirt wasn’t required but Etta James was there.

History continues to treat Brundage badly, and rightly so. The man who tried so hard to take the 1956 Olympic Games away from Melbourne is remembered as a hypocritical authoritarian, an overt racist, an anti-Semite and a Nazi sympathizer. He was also a male chauvinist pig, a sexist who was never comfortable with women competing in the Olympics and in Berlin in 1936 called for compulsory sex tests. Criticising the great Babe Didrikson (right) as a publicity seeker in December 1932, Brundage, then president of the US Amateur Athletic Union, said, “You know, the ancient Greeks kept women out of their athletic games. They wouldn’t even let them on the sidelines. I’m not so sure but they were right.”
 Apart from his many other shortcomings, Brundage’s idea of “fair play” in matrimony was to swear fidelity to a woman of financial substance (the daughter of a Chicago banker) then proceed to sow his wild oats as far and as often as he could. In marrying Elizabeth Dunlap in 1927, he threw over his long-time partner, Frances M. Blakely, but then kept Frances on as a paid mistress, secretary and executive assistant. Notwithstanding the openness of the arrangement, Blakely remains a very shadowy figure, about whom nothing is known, except for mentions by a Congress Select Committee investigating real estate bondholders' reorganisations.

The same cannot be said of Finnish-born Lillian Linnea Dresden-Paulin (née Wahamaki, 1919-2001). At the time of the preparations and staging of the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Brundage (left) fathered two illegitimate sons by Dresden, the daughter of a former Finnish consul in Shanghai. Brundage was living with his wife in Santa Barbara while Lillian lived in a house Brundage had bought for her (but put in Blakely’s name) in Redwood City. Brundage and Dresden met in 1948, when he was 61 and Lillian 29. The second son was born the very week Brundage began his presidency of the IOC. Brundage kept his name off the birth certificates but in 1955 he signed a trust agreement with Lillian. It included a proviso that the deal would be nullified if Lillian ever said anything that would bring Brundage into disrepute. In June 1980 the two sons, Avery Gregory Dresden (born August 27, 1951) and Gary Toro Dresden (born August 19, 1952) finally got $62,500 each from Brundage’s $19 million Californian estate. Avery Dresden later changed his surname to Brundage.

Eleanor Holm in the Press Tribune at the Main Stadium at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. On her left is Paul Gallico and on her right is Alan Gould. At her feet is her Royal typewriter in its case.

One woman who spurned Brundage’s unwelcome advances was the Olympic champion backstroke swimmer Eleanor Grace Holm (left, 1913-2004), who Brundage had kicked off the US team for the 1936 Nazi Olympics in Berlin. While David Maraniss, an associate editor at
The Washington Post, was researching his 2008 book Rome 1960: The Olympics that Changed the World, he became close to Dave Sime, the American sprinter who missed the Melbourne Games but won a silver in the 100 metres in Rome. In later life Sime was a respected eye doctor in South Florida, where his clients included Holm. Sime told Maraniss that Holm had confided in him the real reason Brundage engineered her removal from the Berlin Games - he hated her because she'd rejected his sexual proposition. The official claim is that she had indulged in a little too much champagne on the US team’s voyage across the Atlantic on the SS Manhattan. Holm had competed at age 14½ at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics and at 18 won gold in Los Angeles in 1932, having set a new world record a month before the Games.

Flying home: Eleanor Holm departs Germany in August 1936.

While Holm never made public her accusation of Brundage’s improper conduct towards her, she did tell AP’s Will Grimsley in 1976 that “I drove old Avery up the wall. He didn’t mind pinching the broads but he was a blue nose about drinking. All those Olympic bags were just jealous of me because they saw me having a good time up in the first-class quarters with the newspapermen.” Those contacts with newspapermen paid off immediately, and while still in Berlin Holm was signed up to write a column for William Randolph Hearst’s International News Service. By her own admission, “I had some of the best writers in the world helping me – Paul Gallico, Alan Gould of the Associated Press and Charles MacArthur.”

In his coverage of the Berlin Games for the New York Daily News, Gallico (above) tore strips off Brundage, labelling him “Herr Doktor, chief wowser of the American Olympic Committee on temperance, morals and prohibition of nearly everything”. Gallico reported Brundage had tried to have Holm barred from competing as an amateur anywhere in Europe. As a result of remarks made by Holm in a Gallico interview, other American newspapers called for a “very, very thorough investigate of Brundage”. Holm was described as the victim of Brundage’s “autocratic wrath”. It turns out he was more likely to be a man who Holm told to keep his pants on.